1st Plenary: Electricity Load Forecating techniques: The Algerian and Irish experience by Tarek KHADIR
The electric power industry in many developing countries is moving from a centralized operational approach to a competitive one. The understanding of electric power supply as a public service is being replaced by the notion that a competitive market is a more appropriate mechanism to supply energy to consumers with high reliability and low cost. In such a competitive electricity market environment, power producers and consumers need, on one hand, accurate load and/or electricity consumption forecasting tools. These tools will ensure an a-priori knowledge on the amount of energy needed for production.
Short, middle and long term electricity demand forecasts are required by power utilities for efficient operation of the power grid. In a competitive market environment, suppliers and large consumers also require short term forecasts in order to estimate their energy requirements in advance. Electricity demand is influenced (among other things) by the day of the week, the time of year and special periods and/or days, all of which must be identified prior to modeling. This identification, known as day-type identification, must be included in the modeling stage either by segmenting the data and modeling each day-type separately or by including the day-type as an input. Kohonen maps or Self Organising Maps (SOM) has proved their efficiency in load forecasting clustering.
However it is difficult to clearly identify the clusters and their borders when the SOM is very populated. A two level clustering approach is therefore preferred, where the second stage consist in applying a discriminate analysis technique such as the K-means algorithm. Based on the prior day type identification, one may choose an adequate load forecasting modelling approach such as multi-model and multi-time scale, taking into account each cluster (or day type) specification.
Some applications concerning load day type identification using a two level clustering approach will be presented for the Irish and the Algerian national electricity load. A comparison between obtained results will be discussed, including the influence of weather and socio-cultural parameters on the obtained clusters. Examples of load forecasting models using Artificial Neural Networks as well as Fuzzy Logic based on the obtained clusters will be presented.
Mohamed Tarek Khadir was born on the 5th of July 1972 in Annaba Algeria. After succeeding in the baccalaureat, majoring in Maths and Technology in 1989, he graduated from the University of Badji Mokhtar Annaba, Algeria, with a state Engineering degree in Electronics Majoring in Control, in June 1995. After two years' work in the computer industry, he undertook an M.Eng. at Dublin City University, Ireland Graduating with First class honors and classified 2nd among the 1998 promotion. He later received a Ph.D degree from National University of Ireland, Maynooth, in 2002 in the field of advanced model based control. He continued with this institution as a post-doctoral researcher until September 2003 when he joined the department of computer science in his original university of Badji Mokhtar Annaba, Algeria, as a senior lecturer. He succeeded in obtaining the HDR (Habilitation to Direct Research) in January 2005 and since then he is directing a research team focusing on multi-models, forecasting and knowledge management in industry, with a special interest for energy production and pollution issues. Dr. Tarek Khadir is also part of several EU-MEDA joint research and training projects.
2nd Plenary: The Impact of Renewable Energy Power Systems on Power Quality by M. S. Khanniche, School of Engineering, Swansea University, UK.
An overview of renewable energy power systems and recent developments in Power Quality solutions will be given. Related topics which will be covered in the presentation include:-
* European harmonic standards and the recommended G4/5 directive.
* Smart Electricity Metering.
* Case study of typical power quality issues in the steel industry.
* The impact of power quality solutions on the cost of new installations and compliance of existing systems.
Finally potential solutions, limitations and the need for further developments will be highlighted
Dr Salah Khanniche
is a senior Salah Khanniche is a senior lecturer, School of Engineering University of Wales Swansea. He obtained his BSc, MSc and PhD from Swansea University in 1981, 1982 and 1985 respectively.
He is specialised in Power Electronics.
Real time embedded Control for Power Electronics Systems
Variables Speed Drives
Renewable Energy Systems
3rd Plenary: HARMONIC TREATMENT IN INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS by Ahmed Faheem Zobaa, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
The proliferation of harmonic-producing loads on the power system continues to increase. Industrial customers are using adjustable speed drives (ASD) throughout facilities to provide improved process control and energy efficiency. Commercial facility loads are dominated by electronic loads and fluorescent lighting, as well as increased application of ASD in HVAC systems. Even residential loads have a continually increasing percentage of electronic equipment (TVs, computers, compact fluorescent lights, etc.). The result is increasing levels of harmonic currents on power . supply systems. These harmonic currents combine with the impedance characteristics of the supply system to cause voltage distortion.
There is a need for general guidelines for evaluating system harmonic problems, designing power systems to avoid these problems, and implementing standardized solutions for the problems when they occur. In addition, guidelines for applying limits to equipment and individual customers are ' needed with standardized language for contracts with customers. With deregulation and the separation of transmission and distribution systems, it is also becoming important to develop guidelines for harmonics at transmission interface points. Finally, a method of applying economic penalties for customer injection of harmonics is needed, similar to approaches used by utilities for penalizing customers with low power factor. Harmonics problem is an international problem. Standards for harmonic distortion have been developed. Working groups are working on revisions to these standards to reflect the changing nature of customer loads and the power system characteristics. International participation in this project will provide input to these standards development organizations to improve the applicability of future standards and to provide a consistent framework for international standards.
Different system designs throughout the world will help in identifying important factors that are affecting harmonic levels on all systems. It is important to identify the best locations for harmonic control, the effects of cancellation from different harmonic sources on the system, and the importance of the system response characteristics.
This plenary session presents the available methods to reduce the harmonic distortions in the industrial power systems.
Ahmed Faheem Zobaa received the B.Sc.(hons.), M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Power & Machines from the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, in 1992, 1997 and 2002.
Currently, he is a Senior Lecturer in Renewable Energy, University of Exeter, United Kingdom. He has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Power & Machines, with the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University from 2003 to 2007, an Instructor in the Department of Electrical Power & Machines, with the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University from 1992 to 1997 and Teaching Assistant from 1997 to 2002. His main areas of expertise are power quality, photovoltaic energy, wind energy, and marine renewable energy.
Dr. Zobaa is an Editor-In-Chief for International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology. Also, He is serving as Editorial Board member, Editor, Associate Editor , and Editorial Advisory Board member for many international journals.
Dr. Zobaa is a registered Chartered Engineer. Also, he is a Registered Member of the Egyptian Society of Engineers, and the Engineering Council UK.
Dr. Zobaa is a senior member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Also, he is a senior member of the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE), the Alternative & Renewable Energy Development Institute, and the Facility Manager Institute of AEE. Also, he is a member of Institution of Engineering and Technology, International Solar Energy Society, European Society for Engineering Education, European Power Electronics & Drives Association, UK Solar Energy Society, and IEEE Standards Association.
4th Plenary: Control design for power regulation and optimization of variable speed wind turbines, is it a key factor? by Houria Siguerdidjane, SUPELEC,
Département Automatique, France.
The potential of wind power may contribute to electricity production in significant proportions all over the world. Since, wind power is free, clean and endless, so then wind energy conversion systems have quickly evolved over the last decades thanks to the technological progress.
Variable-speed wind turbines have been introduced to overcome the inconveniences of fixed speed wind turbines and have led to increase the annual energy production and to attenuate power fluctuations. As, more and more wind turbines farms are being installed in several countries, it brings more focus on wind turbine control research studies in order to improve the wind turbines performance.
In particular, it may be shown that the control strategies have a major effect on the wind turbine and the electric grid loads, and whatever the kind of the wind turbine, the control strategy remains crucial. Although, classical controllers are extensively used, efficient and reliable exploitation tools are necessary to make these installations more profitable. For this purpose, advanced control algorithms are developed by the scientific researchers for variable-speed wind turbines to reach the required performance in terms of power production and to ensure good quality electrical energy.
Indeed, the main control objective is to optimize the electrical power below the rated power and to regulate it above the rated power while reducing the mechanical transient loads and the power fluctuations as well. So then, various control strategies are described and the related performance are compared.
Finally, future perspectives are discussed with regards to political requirements, with regards to environmental and social impacts and with regards to modern wind generation systems.
Houria Siguerdidjane received the Engineering degree from SUPELEC located nearby Paris. She joined EDF (French Electricity Board) for a couple of years before be back to SUPELEC and to receive the Doctorate degree in Automatic Control and Signal Processing from University Paris XI in 1985. Her research interests include linear and nonlinear control systems and applications to power systems, mechanical and aerospace problems.
In 1984-1985, she was on sabbatical leave at the Company ALSTOM T&D, where her main interest was the application of new concepts to improve the relaying protection performance in high voltage electrical networks. In 1998, she received the Habilitation degree in Physics Sciences from University Paris XI. She is currently Professor at SUPELEC and has been in charge of the project Wind Energy Power Prediction, within the project €nergie launched in 2001 by SUPELEC under industrial support. Houria Siguerdidjane is an associate editor of the IFAC Journal Control Engineering Practice, besides other activities as Chair within the International Federation of Automatic Control.